A few words about the
important business of cited references …
- Prepared by T. Andrew Yang - Updated on 9/26/2007
Why is it important to do proper citing in
is fundamental in scientific research to properly cite previously published
work, which may be by other scientists, researchers, journalists, et. al., or
even by yourself.
using properly cited references, you show your respect for others' work and
avoid copyright infringement or plagiarism.
How to properly cite published work?
citing is required when you quote or re-paraphrase words from
others, especially those that are published.
An example citing via quoting:
As pointed out by
O’Reilly in , “The next time a company claims that it's
"Web 2.0," test their features against the list above. The more
points they score, the more they are worthy of the name. Remember, though, that
excellence in one area may be more telling than some small steps in all
 Tim O’Reilly,
What is Web 2.0? , September 30 2005. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-Web-20.html.
Retrieved on 7/14/2007.
An example citing via re-paraphrasing from an
The success of companies such as Google and Amazon.com are directly
linked to their success in “harnessing collective intelligence”
created by customers’ contributions via product reviews, blogging, online
profiles, et al .
 Tim O’Reilly.
Harnessing Collective Intelligence. O’Reilly Radar. Nov. 10, 2006. http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/11/harnessing_coll.html
Retrieved on 6/20/2007.
An example citing via re-paraphrasing from a referred
Hamilton and Gunesh  defines an 8C Framework by adding ‘characterization’
as the 8th C, in order to account for the Web site’s ability to adapt and
modify itself, giving the impression of a made-to-order site made specifically
for the customer.
 John Hamilton, and Reshmee Gunesh, Incorporating customer
interface-marketing design elements to leverage strategic positioning in the
on-line real estate industry, in the Proceedings of the Hawaii International
Conference on Business, June 18 -21, 2003.
An example citing via re-paraphrasing from a book:
There exist five primary
revenue models: advertising, subscription, transaction fee, sales, and affiliate
8. K.C. Laudon
and C.G. Traver, E-commerce: business,
technology, society; 3rd edition, Prentice Hall: 2006, pp.62-63.
learn how to use cited references in writing your technical papers, please
refer to the IEEE Reference Guide (at http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/pubs/ref_guides/ieee.html).
note that different disciplines have different styles when it comes to writing
learn more about copyright protection in general and the Berne Convention,
refer to http://www.whatiscopyright.org/
learn copyright legislation, cases, and laws, refer to http://fairuse.stanford.edu/.